Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area.. Saudi Arabia has an area of approximately 2,250,000 km2, and it has an estimated population of 27 million, of which 9 million are registered foreign expatriates and an estimated 2 million are illegal immigrants. Saudi nationals comprise an estimated 16 million people.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud in1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family. The Saudi Arabian government, which has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, refers to its system of government as Islamic. The kingdom is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam.
Saudi Arabia has the world's second largest oil reserves which are concentrated largely in the Eastern Province and oil accounts for more than 95% of exports and 70% of government revenue. This facilitates the creation of a welfare state although the share of the non-oil economy is growing recently. It has also the world's sixth largest natural gas reserves.
Jeddah is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. With a population currently at 3.2 million, Jeddah is an important commercial hub in Saudi Arabia
Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city, which able-bodied Muslims are required to visit at least once in their lifetime. It is also a gateway to Medina, the second holiest place in Islam.
Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC).
Khobar is a large city located in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the coast of the Arabian Gulf. It has a population of over 450,000 and forms part of the greater Dammam metropolitan area along with Dhahran, which together have a combined population of over 2,500,000. All three urban centers are served by the King Fahd International Airport, the distance to the airport terminal from Khobar is about 50 km (30 Miles).
Many of Khobar's residents work for Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil company. Traditionally, Khobar has also been a city of shopkeepers and merchants, and the city today has many modern malls and boulevards with shops run by international franchises, and restaurants. Together, Khobar, Dhahran and Dammam are often known as "The Triplet Cities". Khobar today is a bustling economic centre with many skyscrapers under construction. The nearby city of Dammam has the second-largest port in Saudi Arabia.
Medina, is a modern city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of Al Madinah Province. An alternative name is Madinat Al-Nabi ("The City of the Prophet," i.e. Muhammad).
It is the second holiest city in Islam after Mecca and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Medina is critically significant in Islamic History for being where Muhammad's final religious base was established after the Hijrah and where he died in 632 AD/11 AH. Medina was the power base of Islam in its first century, being where the early Muslim community developed under the Prophet's leadership, then under the leadership of the first four caliphs of Islam: Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali.